By Dean Radin, et al (Parapsychology FAQ, 1995)

Note: For the most up-to-date version of Dr. Radin’s Parapsychology FAQ, please visit the Parapsychological Asociation web site: http://www.parapsych.org/section/36/frequently_asked_questions.aspx

Parapsychology is the scientific and scholarly study of certain unusual events associated with human experience. A long-held, common-sense assumption is that the worlds of subjective and objective are completely distinct, with no overlap. Subjective is ‘within us, inside our minds,’ and objective is ‘out there, in the world.’  Parapsychology is the study of phenomena suggesting that the strict objective/objective dichotomy may instead be part of a spectrum, with some phenomena occasionally falling between purely subjective and purely objective. We call such phenomena ‘paranormal’ or ‘anomalous’ because they are difficult to explain within current scientific models.

These anomalies fall into three general categories: ESP [extrasensory perception, such as telepathy and clairvoyance], PK [psychokinesis, or anomalous mind-matter interactions], and phenomena suggestive of survival of bodily death, including near-death experiences, apparitions, and reincarnation. Most parapsychologists today expect that further research will eventually explain these anomalies in scientific terms, although it is not clear whether they can be fully understood without significant (possibly revolutionary) expansions of the current state of scientific knowledge. Other researchers take the stance that existing scientific models of perception and memory are adequate to explain some or all parapsychological phenomena. 



Parapsychology is interesting mainly because of the implications. To list just a few examples, psi [psychic] phenomena suggest that:

1). What science knows about the nature of the universe is not complete;

2). The presumed capabilities and limitations of human potential have been underestimated;

3). Fundamental assumptions and philosophical beliefs about the separation of mind and body may be incorrect;

4). Religious assumptions about the divine nature of ‘miracles’ may have been mistaken.

Throughout history, human beings have reported the occurrence of parapsychological events and abilities. Our earliest ancestors appeared to talk to the gods through paranormal means. Events of interest to the tribe were prognosticated through trance, divination, dreams, and intuitive knowing.

Our forefathers sought to control the weather by ritual magic and to accomplish cures by invoking the appropriate spirits, or enlisting the aid of plant and animal guides. Shamanic practices throughout the world regularly included out-of-body travel, bilocation, thought transference, and distant influence on the physical universe. These “powers” were not all working for the good.

Tribal peoples used magical spells against their enemies individually and collectively, sometimes for no other reason than to steal their land or to enslave them. In individual and tribal disputes, the battleground often moved into the realm of the spirits, each party invoking extraordinary powers in an effort to overcome the other. Even to venture into the realm of extraordinary powers involved great risk, and could work against you. While these powers could bring knowledge and influence beyond our ordinary capabilities, so also could they bring death, disaster, disease, and even insanity.

The modern study of parapsychology began over 100 years ago and in that time has amassed thousands of case studies and formal experiments in order to better understand these non-ordinary realms. But, at the same time, it has done little to address the social impact of so-called paranormal events in the daily lives of individuals or groups. Researchers have painstakingly recorded countless thousands of attempts to apprehend, predict, or influence random events in laboratory settings. They have gathered powerful statistical evidence to prove their existence, and have developed theories and models to explain how they might occur, however, very little has been done to deal with these phenomena phenomenologically. Therefore, the American Institute of Parapsychology has adopted a phenomenological approach, offering counseling and support, as well as research, both scholarly and applied, approaches to Parapsychology and Paranormal Studies.

Modern surveys have confirmed that surprisingly large numbers of individuals in Western societies report experiencing one or more forms of parapsychological phenomena, and yet the field of experimental parapsychology has little advice to offer them. Often, these people need knowledgeable advice, guidance, or counseling to help them deal with their experiences. But where do they go for help? In modern American society, we are not encouraged to talk about thought transference with another person, spirit entities, precognitive dreams, an inner knowing when a friend or relative has died, or an encounter with a UFO. And we are especially not encouraged to speak of such things with psychologists, psychiatrists, or other professionals, including most traditionally trained scientists, who are likely to view them summarily as signs of mental disintegration or involvement with some kind of quackery or pseudo-science.

Whether they have, in fact, had a paranormal experience in the technical sense – that it was not due to some bizarre but explainable perceptual anomaly- is not the issue here. The fact is that a paranormal experience of it may be more than curiosity arousing, it can be confusing, disorienting, or even life-changing to the one who experiences it. And this is where someone trained in parapsychology, and trained within it in new ways, can be of help.

In 1969, after many years of hard work on its own behalf, the scientific discipline of
parapsychology was formally admitted as a member science into the prestigious American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Of all the many dozens of member sciences in that community, parapsychology has from its inception been virtually the only one not to have found or made a place for itself within the traditional international mainstream college and university community. Because it acts as a repository for so much of what current science does not yet understand, or choose to take seriously or wish to study, parapsychology has been virtually shut out of worldwide higher education.

This has occurred because of unfortunate misconceptions and undeserved negative connotations surrounding the field even though there is now irrefutable evidence, from thousands of experiments and studies over the past 120 years, that many of the various anomalous experiences, phenomena, processes, and abilities studied by parapsychologists are actually real and merit further study and potential application for the good of our species. It is now more important than ever before to provide a place and way for those who wish to seriously study parapsychology and related paranormal and consciousness fields. There is a pressing need to have people trained to:

• Carry out much-needed research that can further open the scientific and lay community to the reality and potential utility of what is found with regard to paranormal phenomena and experiences studied by parapsychology

• Teach within existing academic programs and departments; or set up and teach within new educational programs in parapsychology.

• Provide in-service training and continuing education to a wide variety of already credentialed and working professionals who seek to understand the paranormal and how it relates to their work.

• Publish, give presentations, workshops, and in other ways help to raise consciousness about paranormal phenomena, abilities, and potential.

• Create new vocational niches for oneself and others, new ways to earn a living, as
authorities on the paranormal; be entrepreneurs, in academia, business, human services, information systems; be resources, consultants, start new enterprises to meet the needs of those seeking understanding, support, and expertise with regard to the paranormal.

• Meet the needs of those troubled by their paranormal experiences, either clinically or as non-clinical helping professionals.

There are, at present, few employment opportunities for those with a specialization in parapsychology, and there are only a handful of institutions in the world besides the American Institute of Parapsychology with an educational program in parapsychology. Nonetheless, there is mounting evidence to argue that there will be a rapid rise in the need for educational research and training programs in the field of parapsychology.


The world is in the midst of an extraordinarily widespread and inspired interest in, and increasing personal experiences of, the paranormal and the otherworldly on the part of an ever-larger percentage of the population.


Some peoples’ experience of the paranormal is problematic or disturbing for them. They may feel threatened, feel they are losing their mind, are questioning or becoming detached from the usual, familiar, and normal. This may lead to estrangement from others and even dysfunction and psychopathology. Conversely, purely subjective or psychopathological roots can lead to claims of paranormal experiences and abilities that are groundless. Many people troubled by the paranormal would like and need to work with someone uniquely trained to help them– a new kind of professional, the parapsychological consultant specializing as a helping professional rather than as a researcher.


Russia, the US, and other countries have been engaged in very serious, often well-funded, usually-covert, research with regard to the nature and efficacy of a variety of
psi (psychic) phenomena and abilities with particular emphasis placed on developing psi abilities, such as telepathy, clairvoyance or “remote viewing,” and remote influence on both living and inanimate systems, for purposes of “intelligence gathering” (spying) and psychically oriented defensive and offensive strategies. It is anticipated that such past long-term covert psi research and application will become more overt and public. Although originally conducted for military-type applications, much of this reseach can be applied to helping humanity.


Parapsychology, through its study of anomalous mind-matter interactions and the relation of human consciousness and intention to living systems (an aspect of psychokinesis), is coming of age to make dramatic contributions to the emerging field of alternative or complementary medicine, to new modes of diagnosis, treatment (including what is called anomalous healing), illness prevention, and wellness maintenance. Parapsychology stands poised to make important contributions to the current health care system.


There is increasing evidence to support the contention that the much-discussed and long-awaited “paradigm shift” in our scientific understanding and offshoot technologies is close at hand, and that it is even in the process of occurring in our lifetime. This shift involves a number of inter-related discoveries or anticipated breakthrough areas of research, all of which are central to parapsychology.

These areas include:

• The role that consciousness/intention plays in both non-living and living systems, and the study of the nature and capacities of consciousness itself

• The study of extrasensory perception, or anomalous cognition or information processing, extending our human capacities.

• What quantum physicists call “non-locality,” or the now experimentally proven fact that systems once thought to be separate are connected/correlated in paranormal ways.

• The study of kinds and levels of energy, “subtle” energies, higher dimensions, higher octaves of vibratory energy and information adjacent to physical-level reality.

• The fact that we are rapidly entering a second Copernican revolution with mounting evidence that we are not alone in the Universe, the otherworldly is making itself known through interaction with the afterlife, through UFO and extraterrestrial type experiences, and a rise in perplexing related trans-physical, subjective-spiritual, deeper-meaning phenomena.


One of the three branches of the field of parapsychology, and the central early focus within its precursor field of psychical research, is survival research, or the study of whether or not human consciousness can operate outside of, or survive beyond the death of, the physical brain and body.

It is anticipated that there will be a pressing need for the professional preparation of people to provide new and alternative services for:

1). Those who have questions or needs about dying, death and a possible afterlife.

2). Those who are dying and their relatives and loved ones.

3). Those who seek some form of communication between themselves and someone who has moved to the reported next mode of existence following physical death.


  • Rose M. Wise says:

    I’m still looking for answers to all my experiences with the paranormal and, to ask why me? I began experiencing strange phenomon not long after my mother passed away. In 1998. I was told many different stories that this being such a traumatic experience for me loosing my mother and, not being able to let go for so long however, my abilities have became stronger and, I’m able to see things with the naked eye. I can also see
    into the spirit world.
    What I trying to say is that we have many mysteries with in the universe and, unexplained events that have not been taken seriously. I truly believe that theses things happen for a reason. I have had premonitions that were shown on the news. I can do channel writing talking with spirits. I pick up easily on other peoples feelings. I also sense the engery and, see theses encounters that can make me very sad. I need answers to what has happened to me. I have written a book that tells of
    my many experiences and, how it has changed my life. How it has made me
    become so much closer to GOD.
    My concerns now are of theses Paranormal verses Christanity. I was going to church on a regular basis however, christanity will right away say these actions are of satan himself. I disagree. Theres many scriptures of the paranormal stated in the bible although, this does not seem to be the same meaning as to what the christians believe.
    I will say this will never keep me apart from God. I will always have
    a close relationship with him. He is my protector.
    UNIVERSE. I felt that this was very important to speak of what has happened to me and, so many others.
    If you have any input on this please reply.

    Thank You
    Rose M. Wise

    • Bonnie Peavey says:

      I am trying to contact anyone who can tell me how to enroll in your school of parapsychology? would not allow me access to where it say’s contact us for some reason. I can be contacted by peaveybonnie@yahoo.com and/or 678-534-0431 Thank you for your assistance in this matter

  • Great info on e.s.p. , Extrasensory Perception

  • Shatzi Crabtree says:

    Enjoyed this very much. I too experienced what we would call living in a “haunted house” when I was small, and I am sure I was neither dreaming nor hallucinating, and it was no mass hallucination when all of us witnessed the same things. So I believe things exist that we don’t understand yet, BUT I am still a skeptic too. I don’t automatically believe everything I hear either. We had many inexplicable events happen which leads me to think “something” is out there, and I’d like to learn what. I studied science in college, and don’t know how hard core, professional scientists laugh at these ideas. Many things exist that we can’t see, atoms, germs, gravity etc. Yet any mention of psychokinesis or spirits sends them into hysterics because it can’t be seen. There are rules as to when paranormal events occur, and one reason for studying it is to find these rules and conditions. Then perhaps it can be replicated in a controlled environment.
    I will always be interested in this subject.

  • Chris says:

    I need help. My friend and she is a ex-gf. She has had a connection with me for the last 4 yrs. She dont know everything I do. She knows what I write to someone, maybe not what I say to someone. However she does know anyone I am talking to and if that person is writing me or things in their past or present. She has no access to my computers and because she knows most of the time what I am writing. I change my passwords and make them very hard for her to get. She considers what she has as a curse. She knows things about others she is close with also. She has been this way since she was very, very young and thought they were just dreams in her sleep and like a day dream. What would you classify her as?

  • Chantl says:

    Is there any person that survived and went on having a joyfully peaceful life, after being used,mind controlled, oppressive games instigated by the mother, stigmatated. Poverty of the oppressed
    Allienated one seem to be quite important to the those very whealthy parents abusers. Am nearing my end, at 47. It is amazing that i “lived” this long. Often, experienced things that were so strange like bef. 10 y. ,being given to the hell angels, yet i remained in the parental household that had no apparent contact to the h… angels,+having very criminal minded toughts suddenly. Before i had decorated my room with psalms poster & pictures that showed innocence+ the i am the way… postr of J-C, soon after i
    was given, dad took everything out of my room that i liked after
    he slugged me around ,everytime that happened i became a rag
    doll, yet i was a physically strong child . + often did not feel like

    Am writing this on a 7″ tablet and the text split so now not only this whole situation is odd …how i write it to a reader be odd .. will i ever get a break that shall last long enough to get free???
    It is unlikely that i get some help, still i had to try to get help, it is lonely in that box, i wonder ab. just being an illusionary life, …yet am a bit scared, …last dec. 2010 the 29 , saw mom in walmart when i turned around to go talk to her, she was running out of the store, suddenly felt different as tough a sad hood lifted.. being me i tought, enjoy it while it last …having $90 total i tought i can,t run away farenough to be safe… got my allergy pills got a bit of grocery went home, in a 14×15′ room gov’t sponsored place “a project” where i feel a bit lonely being clean & sober,…lets leave that at that.
    I ate and tasted & digested well, felt so good, felt lucky i went to get a loto ticket the young clerk filled it out and wished me luck, i expressed my gratitude for her kindness. Got back to my old kia, was thinking i wish i could afford now to go to montreal (2h.away)
    Was too cold to sleep in my car until $$$$$$$came to me, so i got back to the project, was still feeling great and so hopefull,
    optomistic. I got to write some plans ,till knock at the door, i open
    it was the “maintenance man” of the bldg giving me an envelop mom and my 12 y.o. niece had given him, i changed into an ulgar old woman. How sad, i feel i now know, this is not an illusion, in my 20’s i got into Louise Hay, PMA, &meditation living with
    integrity, not reharshing the past moved 2,000 km away all this is getting harder to start over with nothing at 47.so i still don,t get why my life seem to me so destructively useless, i keep praying for relief &truth.
    so much silly stuff i did not mentiioned, those lines ought to be enough to see there is something not right being done to this “human being” to tend her helpfull suggestions.
    Here i send this hopefull.

    they belong to me like urges to kill myself first time was 13 y.o.

  • Bob Neal says:

    An excellent analysis of this field. It touched on nearly all of my own conclusions. With nearly 60 years of various unexplainable experiences,I have tried to use all the methodology of my 36 year engineering career to help understand my experiences(logic). I don’t think laboratory study would be very helpful with people like myself that have only 3 or 4 “noteworthy” experiences a year. I am quite comfortable with my experiences psychologically, but I still have the scientific curiosity about the “physical” nature of them. I also think it would be hard for a paranormal skeptic to find a job in this field. Some of their attempted explanations are harder to believe than the perceived experience itself. With amature paranormal investigations becoming popular and even good TV programing, wouldn’t it be beneficial for parapsychologists to team up with them to gather more data?

  • Ambarish says:

    Atlast I got the right sight after searching from last 2 year. I belive you people will clear my all questions.

  • Daniel Greaves says:

    Hello,I am thankful for reading this article. My only experience was in room 430 at the Hotel Chelsea. They waited until I got tired of watching the resident building next door, then, when I drifted into a deep sleep, the voices screamed in my ear to wake me. As a consequence, I spent the rest of the night trying to figure out why and where the voices were coming from. In the morning when light appeared, the voices gradually disappeared until I heard no more. I tried to tell friends and family of my experience only to find no one believed me. After that, I decided to keep the experience to myself. Nine years later, I discovered the Chelsea Hotel was on a list of haunted hotels in America. I just told the taxi driver to take me to a hotel in Manhattan, and I had no idea what I was in for. Thank you for helping me.

  • phalen pick says:

    Hello i am writing in hopes that maybe someone can help with what has been going on in a home i have recently bought…i have had problems with what i beileive is /are haunting my entire life however my concern at this time is my 3 year old son is beginning to talk about the monster he says it is black and has red eyes ii don’t think he is imagining it he is terified and there are additional. things sightings touching occuring aass well.. if any one can help please. contact me.. i don’t want my son to be afaid his whole life the way i have been

  • saadi lotfali says:

    hello Dear professor
    i am ma student in cognitive psychology. i interested to para psychology and i study a lot of books and doing hypnosis and astral projection.
    now i would like write a theory about thellepatty.
    can you help me?
    best regarded
    saadi lotfali

  • saadi lotfali says:

    Hello dear professor
    I have a question a bout research in parapsychology.
    How can I do research in parapsychology joint with you.
    Thank you
    saadi lotfali